Forums/Anatomy & Function: A Visual Reference for iPad/Product Overview

1.0.12 Release Notes (December 6, 2013)

Steve Graham
posted this on December 13, 2013 02:58 PM

Anatomy & Function by Visible Body for iPad

Version Number: 1.0.12

Release Date: December 6, 2013

 

This document explains content and functionality in the iPad app released December 6, 2013.

Anatomy & Function provides stunning animations, illustrations, and 3D models of the human body. The app is a quick and easy visual reference for understanding anatomy and physiological processes. Content is organized by common functions and by body systems. It also contains a robust search function.

This app includes:

  • Over 500 preset 3D views into the human body. These can be rotated, zoomed into, and dissected.
  • 72 50-second animations and 77 illustrations that introduce common functions
  • Audio pronunciations and definitions for thousands of anatomical structures.
  • Multiple search functions (browse by system, function, related views or search) and the option to create a library of favorite views.
  • The ability to annotate, save, and share images.

 

Content in the app when users browse by common topics

 

NUTRITION AND ELIMINATION

 

Chewing and Swallowing

Function of the Epiglottis

Alimentary Canal Function

Peristalsis of the Alimentary Canal

Nutrient Absorption

Urinary Functions

Filtration Process

Filtration and Elimination

Filtering Blood

Urine Creation

Endocrine System Hormones

Hormone Circulation

Hormones in the Body

 

CIRCULATION AND RESPIRATION

Heart Function

Location of the Heart

Heart Tissue

Heart Chambers

Heart Chamber Functions

Heart Valves

Heart Valve Functions

Heart Conduction

Arteries and Veins

Blood Pressure

Measuring Blood Pressure

Cardiac Output

Upper Respiratory Structures

Lower Respiratory Structures

Breathing

Gas Exchange in the Lungs

Alveoli Function

Alveoli Structure

Nasal Cavity Mucosa

Respiratory Structures

Breathing Rate

Sneezing

 

COORDINATION AND COMMUNICATION

Brain and Nervous System

Nervous System Functions

Central Nervous System

Brain Regions

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic and Autonomic Functions

Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Functions

Skeletal Muscle Function

Skeletal Muscle Innervation

Smooth Muscle Function

Smooth Muscle of the Body

Sense of Smell

Processing Smell

Sense of Taste

Taste Buds

Vision

Processing Vision

Hearing

Processing Sound

Producing Sound

Vocal Folds

 

REPRODUCTION

Male and Female Fertility

Male Reproductive Organs

Male Sex Cell Production

Female Reproductive Organs

Female Sex Cell Production

Female Reproductive Cycle

Ovulation

Fetal Development

Development of Reproductive Organs

Stages of Birth I

Stages of Birth II

Lactation

 

BODY DEFENSES AND REPAIR

Innate Immunity

Innate Immune Response

Adaptive Immunity

Adaptive Immune Response

Fighting Infection

Tissue Repair

Tissue Repair and Scarring

Bone Repair

 

BONES AND SKELETAL MUSCLES

Muscle Interactions

Skeletal Muscle Attachments

Joints

Joint: Ball and socket

Joint: Condyloid

Joint: Gliding

Joint: Hinge

Joint: Pivot

Joint: Saddle

Joint: Sutures

Involuntary Reflexes

Flat Bone Formation

Long Bone Formation

 

CELLS AND BLOOD

Types of Cells

Red Blood Cells

Red Blood Cell Production

Platelets

Neurons

Mitosis

Cell Transport

Function of Plasma

 

Content in the app when users browse by all topics

 

CELLS AND TISSUE

Cell functions

Cells and tissue overview

Cell types

Skin cells

Neuron structure

CNS neuroglia

Function of white blood cells

Bone cells

Gametes to zygote

Parts of a cell

Nucleus

Protein synthesis

Proteins

Transcription and translation

Plasma membrane

Passive and active transport

Structure of the plasma membrane

Organelles

Transport vesicles

Cytoskeleton and centrosome

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi Complex

Lysosomes and peroxisomes

Mitochondria

Cell cycle

Replication

Mitosis

Mitotic spindle

Meiosis

Tissue types in the body

Epithelial tissue

Skin layers

Connective tissue

Skeletal connective tissue

Bone tissue

Osteon

Types of muscle tissue

Muscular system overview

Skeletal muscle

Smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle

Types of neurons

Function and components of blood

Bone repair

Tissue repair

 

 

CIRCULATORY

Circulatory system overview           

Circulatory anatomy           

Arteries and veins           

Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange           

Function and components of blood           

Blood plasma           

Plasma protein production           

Production of Red Blood Cells           

Erythropoietin and RBC production           

Function of Red Blood Cells           

Red Blood Cells and oxygen transport           

Function of White Blood Cells           

Platelets           

Locations of Platelet production           

Types of blood vessels           

Blood vessel walls           

Artery structure           

Vein structure           

Capillaries           

Blood pressure           

Systolic and diastolic pressure           

Systolic and diastolic pressure           

Systemic circulation           

Great vessels and branches           

Superficial arteries of the head and neck           

Deep arteries of the head and neck           

Circle of Willis I           

Circle of Willis II           

Circle of Willis III           

Arteries of the brain           

Arteries of the Upper Limb I           

Arteries of the Upper Limb II           

Arteries of the Forearm and hand           

Arteries of the Thorax I           

Arteries of the Thorax II           

Branches of the Abdominal aorta I           

Branches of the Abdominal aorta II           

Arteries of the abdomen I           

Arteries of the abdomen II           

Arteries of the Intestines I           

Arteries of the Intestines II           

Arteries of the Pelvis I           

Arteries of the Pelvis II           

Arteries of the upper leg           

Arteries of the lower leg           

Dorsal arteries of the foot           

Plantar arteries of the foot           

Superficial veins of the head and neck           

Deep veins of the head and neck           

Venous sinuses I           

Venous sinuses II           

Veins of the upper limb I           

Veins of the upper limb II           

Veins of the hand           

Veins of the thorax I           

Veins of the thorax II           

Azygos system           

Veins of the abdomen           

Hepatic portal system           

Veins of the intestines I           

Veins of the intestines II           

Veins of the pelvis I           

Veins of the pelvis II           

Veins of the upper leg           

Veins of the lower leg           

Dorsal veins of the foot           

Plantar veins of the foot

 

CIRCULATORY: HEART

Heart overview           

Location of heart in thoracic cavity           

Location of heart in the thoracic cage           

Inferior view of thoracic cavity, transverse section           

Heart wall           

Myocardium           

Heart chamber anatomy           

Heart chambers           

Heart chamber functions           

Heart valve anatomy           

Heart valves           

Heart valve function           

Heart internal anatomy           

Blood flow through the heart           

Blood flow out of the heart           

Blood flow into heart           

Coronary circulation           

Coronary veins           

Left coronary arteries           

Right coronary arteries           

Conduction system           

Heart conduction           

Path of nerve impulse in conduction system           

Electrocardiogram           

Cardiac cycle           

Systole and diastole           

Cardiac output           

Autonomic regulation of heart           

Circulatory routes           

Pulmonary circulation           

Pulmonary circulation and bronchi           

Pulmonary arteries and veins           

Pulmonary arteries           

Pulmonary veins

 

DIGESTION

Digestive overview           

Digestive anatomy           

Digestive process           

Alimentary canal           

Digestive juices           

Production of digestive juices           

Structures of the oral cavity           

Oral cavity           

Chewing and swallowing           

Function of oral cavity structures           

Teeth           

Upper arch           

Lower arch           

Tooth cross-section           

Tongue           

Tongue           

Salivary glands           

Mastication muscles           

Epiglottis, Larynx           

Peristalsis           

Peristalsis of alimentary canal           

Esophagus           

Stomach regions           

Stomach wall           

Stomach sphincters           

Stomach vasculature           

Accessory organs           

Liver lobes           

Liver ligaments           

Hepatic portal system           

Pancreas, liver, gallbladder           

Bile ducts           

Pancreatic ducts           

Blood supply to accessory organs           

Absorption           

Absorption structures           

Intestinal vasculature           

Small intestine           

Large intestine           

Colon regions           

Taenia Coli           

Large intestine           

Defecation reflex

 

ENDOCRINE

Endocrine system overview           

Primary Endocrine organs           

Secondary endocrine organs           

Primary and secondary endocrine organs           

Hormone action

Hormone circulation           

Hypothalamus and pituitary           

Hypothalamus and pituitary hormones           

Hypothalamus hormones           

Hypophyseal portal system           

Anterior pituitary hormones           

Posterior pituitary hormones           

Target organs of pituitary hormones           

Human growth hormone (hGH)           

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)           

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)           

Luteinizing hormone (LH)           

Prolactin (PRL)           

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)           

Melanocyte-stimulating           

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)           

Oxytocin (OXT)           

Pineal gland and hormones           

Thyroid gland           

Thyroid hormone           

Parathyroid glands           

Parathyroid hormones           

Adrenal glands           

Adrenal cortex hormones           

Medulla hormones           

Pancreas           

Pancreatic islets           

Blood glucose level           

Ovaries           

Testes           

Kidneys           

Heart           

Thymus           

Stress response

 

 

INTEGUMENTARY

Integumentary system overview           

Integumentary structures           

Skin layers           

Epidermis layers           

Skin cells           

Epidermal cells           

Dermis layers           

Sebeaceous glands           

Sudoriferous glands           

Integumentary functions           

Dermal circulation           

Vitamin D Synthesis           

Integumentary innervation           

Dermatomes           

Tissue repair           

Tissue repair and scarring           

Hair           

Hair structure           

Hair functions           

Nails           

Mammary glands

 

LYMPHATIC

Lymphatic system overview           

Lymphatic system structures           

Lymphatic vessels and veins           

Thoracic duct           

Thoracic duct           

Right lymphatic duct           

Lymph trunks           

Right lymphatic duct           

Lymph trunks           

Thymus           

Spleen           

Lymph node distribution           

Lymph node structure           

Lymphatic functions           

Lymph circulation           

Lymphocyte production           

Physical defenses           

Innate immunity           

Innate immune response           

Phagocytosis           

Types of white blood cells           

Adaptive immunity           

Adaptive immune response           

B Cells           

T Cells

 

MUSCLES: MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Muscular system overview           

Muscle types           

Types of muscle tissue           

Skeletal muscle           

Smooth muscle           

Cardiac muscle           

Muscular anatomy           

Nerve and blood supply to skeletal muscle           

Skeletal muscle function           

Skeletal muscle innervation           

Skeletal muscle structure           

Smooth muscle of the body           

Smooth muscle function           

Alimentary canal           

Stomach wall           

Trachea and bronchi           

Blood vessel walls           

Urinary/reproductive systems (female)           

Urinary/reproductive systems (male)           

Cardiac muscle           

Heart wall           

Myocardium

 

MUSCLES: MUSCLES IN THE BODY

Muscle interactions           

Skeletal muscle attachments           

Chin raise: Muscles as first class levers           

Calf raise: Muscles as second-class levers           

Elbow flexion: Muscles as third class levers           

Facial expression: Scalp and eyebrow           

Facial expression: Upper mouth           

Facial expression: Lower mouth           

Extrinsic eye muscles           

Mastication           

Tongue           

Neck: Suprahyoid           

Neck: Infrahyoid           

Neck: Head movements           

Vertebral column: Splenius           

Vertebral column: Erector spinae           

Erector spinae: Spinalis           

Erector spinae: Longissimus           

Erector spinae: Iliocostalis           

Vertebral column: Transversospinalis           

Transversospinales: Semispinalis           

Transversospinalis: Rotatores           

Vertebral column: Segmental           

Vertebral column: Scalenes           

Vertebral column: Spinal flexors           

Abdomen           

Thorax: Breathing           

Thorax: Shoulder girdle movements, anterior           

Thorax: S houlder girdle movements, posterior           

Arm: Prime movers           

Arm synergists/fixators           

Arm: Rotator cuff           

Forearm: Elbow flexors           

Forearm: Elbow extensors           

Forearm: Pronation/supination           

Hand: Superficial flexors           

Hand: Deep flexors           

Hand: Superficial flexors           

Hand: Deep extensors           

Fingers: Thenar           

Fingers: Hypothenar           

Fingers: Midpalmer           

Pelvis: Pelvic diaphragm           

Pelvis: Superficial perineal           

Pelvis: Deep perineal           

Thigh: Iliopsoas           

Thigh: Gluteal           

Thigh: Lateral rotators           

Thigh: Anterior compartment           

Anterior compartment: Quadriceps           

Thigh: Medial compartment           

Medial compartmental adductors           

Thigh: Posterior compartment (hamstrings)           

Lower leg: Anterior compartment           

Lower leg: Lateral compartment           

Lower leg: posterior compartment (superficial)           

Lower leg: Posterior compartment (deep)           

Foot: Dorsum           

Foot: Plantar layer 1           

Foot: Plantar layer 2           

Foot: Plantar layer 3           

Foot: Plantar layer 4

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM

Nervous system overview           

Nervous system anatomy           

Central nervous system           

Peripheral nervous system           

Nervous system functions           

Nervous tissue in the body           

Neuron structure           

Types of neurons           

CNS neuroglia           

PNS neuroglia           

Neuron function           

Resting and action potentials           

Neurotransmitters           

Acetylcholine (Ach)           

Norepinephrine (NE) and Epinephrine (E)           

Dopamine           

Spinal cord           

Spine cross section           

Spinal nerve roots           

Gray and white matter           

Sensory signals           

Motor commands           

Spinal nerves           

Spinal nerve regions           

Dermatomes           

Cervical plexus           

Cervical innervation           

Brachial plexus           

Brachial innervation I           

Brachial innervation II           

Brachial innervation III           

Lumbosacral Plexus I           

Lumbosacral Plexus II           

Lumbosacral innervation           

Somatic reflex arc           

Path of Reflex Arc           

Somatic and Autonomic functions           

Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Functions           

Somatic Sensory Signals           

Skin Sensory Receptors           

Somatic Motor Signals           

Skeletal Muscle Contraction           

Somatic Sensory and Motor Pathways           

Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum           

Autonomic Nervous Functions           

Sympathetic Nervous System           

Sympathetic Nervous Functions           

Parasympathetic Nervous System           

Parasympathetic Nervous Functions

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM: BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES

The Brain           

Brain regions           

Brain cross sections           

Ventricles of the brain           

Cerebrospinal fluid           

Blood supply to the brain           

Brain stem           

Medulla and pons           

Midbrain           

Cerebellum anatomy           

Cerebellum function           

Diencephalon           

Thalamus           

Hypothalamus           

Pituitary gland           

Limbic system           

Cerebrum           

Cerebral hemispheres           

Lobes of the cerebral cortex           

Features of the cerebral cortex           

Basal ganglia           

Functional regions of the cerebral cortex           

Functional regions and cortex anatomy           

Hemispheric lateralization           

Cranial nerves           

Special sensory cranial nerves           

Motor cranial nerves           

Mixed cranial nerves           

Olfactory nerves (I)           

Olfaction           

Optic Nerves (II)           

Vision           

Oculomotor Nerves (III)           

Trochlear nerves (IV)           

Trigeminal nerves (V)           

Opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve           

Maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve           

Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve           

Abducens Nerves (VI)           

Facial nerves (VII)           

Vestibulocochlear nerves (VIII)           

Glossopharyngeal nerves (IX)           

Vagus nerves (X)           

Accessory nerves (XI)           

Hypoglossal nerves (XII)

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM: SPECIAL SENSES

Special sensory organs           

Special sensory organs           

Olfaction           

Olfactory pathway           

Tongue           

Taste buds           

Papillae           

Taste pathway           

Eyes in context           

Eye           

Eye layers           

Lacrimal apparatus           

Eye interior           

Retina           

Rods and cones           

Vision           

Types of vision           

Vision pathway           

Optic chiasm           

Ear           

Outer ear           

Middle ear           

Inner ear           

Cochlea cross section           

Organ of Corti           

Hearing           

Auditory pathway           

Equilibrium           

Equilibrium pathway

 

SKELETON: BONE TISSUE AND JOINTS

Skeletal system overview

Axial and appendicular skeleton

Bone cells

Bone types

Flat bones

Long bones

Short bones

Irregular bones

Sesamoid bones

Interior of a long bone

Parts of a long bone

Compact and spongy bone tissue

Osteon

Flat bone formation

Flat bones in the skull

Fontanelles

Long bone formation and growth

Long bones in the limbs

Joints

Joints in the skull

Synarthroses (no movement): Skull sutures

Synarthroses (no movement): Gomphoses

Synarthroses (no movement): Synchrondoses

Syndesmoses (slight movement)

Symphyses (slight movement)

Synovial joints (full movement)

Structure of synovial joints

Gliding  (plane) joints movement

Gliding joints in the skeleton

Hinge joints movement

Hinge joints in the skeleton

Pivot joints movement

Pivot joints in the skeleton

Condyloid joints movement

Condyloid joints in the skeleton

Saddle joints movement

Saddle joints in the skeleton

Ball-and-socket joints movement

Ball-and-socket joints in the skeleton

Ligaments and synovial joints

Healthy and osteoporotic bone

Osteoporosis

Types of fractures

Bone repair

Joints and aging

 

SKELETON: HUMAN SKELETON

Appendicular skeleton

Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

Muscular stabilization

Upper limb

Arm and forearm

Carpus (wrist) I

Carpus (wrist) II

Carpal tunnel

Hand

Pelvic (hip) girdle

Male and female pelvis

Lower limb

Thigh and leg

Tarsus

Foot arches

Foot

Axial skeleton

Skull

Cranial bones

Skull sutures

Fontanelles

Facial skeleton I

Facial skeleton II

Auditory ossicles

Foramina of skull

Bones of the orbit

Nasal septum

Hyoid

Vertebral column

Vertebra

Ligaments of the spine

Intervertebral joints

Cervical spine

Thoracic spine

Lumbar spine

Sacral spine

Thoracic cage

Sternum

Ribs

 

REPRODUCTION

Reproductive system overview           

Gametes to zygote           

Sexual reproduction           

Path of zygote           

Hormones and fetal development           

Fetal reproductive development           

Fetal development           

Birth           

Stages of birth           

Reproductive lifespan           

Male reproductive anatomy           

Male reproductive organs in context           

Testes and spermatic cords           

Seminiferous tubules           

Spermatogenesis           

Epididymis           

Vas deferens           

Urethra           

Accessory glands           

Semen production           

Penis internal anatomy           

Blood supply to male genetalia           

Male sexual response           

Male sex hormones           

Female reproductive anatomy           

Female reproductive organs in context           

Pelvic ligaments           

Ovaries           

Ovary internal anatomy           

Oogenesis           

Relationship of ovaries to uterus           

Blood supply to uterus and ovaries           

Vagina           

External genetalia           

Female reproductive cycle           

Ovulation           

Female sex hormones           

Mammary glands           

Lactation           

Lactation hormones

 

RESPIRATORY

Respiratory system overview           

Functions of respiratory structures           

Pulmonary ventilation           

External respiration           

Internal respiration           

Pulmonary ventilation and Boyle's Law           

Pulmonary ventilation structures           

External respiration           

External respiration structures           

Internal respiration           

Internal respiration structures           

Breathing rate and regulation           

Respiratory regulation           

Upper respiratory structures           

Nasal cavity           

Nasal septum           

Bones of the nasal cavity           

Nasal cartilages           

Upper respiratory tract           

Nasal mucosa           

Pharynx           

Larynx, posterior           

Larynx, anterior           

Vocal folds and musculature           

Lower respiratory structures           

Location of the trachea           

Cartilaginous rings           

The trachea and bronchi           

Lungs in anatomical context           

The trachea and bronchi           

Lungs in anatomical context           

Right lung, gross anatomy           

Left lung, gross anatomy           

Lung hilium           

Bronchial tree           

Alveoli           

Respiratory membrane           

Muscles of inhalation           

Muscles of exhalation           

Filtration of air           

Respiratory defenses           

Sneezing           

Olfaction           

Olfaction structures           

Function of the epiglottis           

Phonation           

Blood supply to the lungs           

Pulmonary circulation           

Dalton's law

 

URINARY SYSTEM

Urinary system overview           

Male urinary anatomy           

Female urinary anatomy           

Urinary functions           

Position of the kidneys           

Kidney anatomy           

Blood supply to the kidneys           

Blood flow through the nephron           

Nephron structure           

Filtration process           

Filtration           

Filtration membrane           

Reabsorption and secretion           

Reabsorption and secretion process           

Urine composition           

Function of ADH           

Pathway of urine           

Ureters           

Bladder in female           

Bladder in male           

Bladder anatomy           

Micturition reflex           

Nervous control of micturition           

Urethral sphincters           

Female urethra           

Male urethra

 
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