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A&P for PC/Mac Release Notes

System Requirements

  • OS X 10.9/10.10/10.11
  • Dedicated video card with 64+ MB on-board RAM
  • 2 GB RAM
  • Intel processor
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  • Windows 7/8/10
  • Dedicated video card with 64+ MB on-board RAM
  • 2 GB RAM
  • 2 GHz Pentium 4 processor or better
  • 1024 x 768 screen resolution or better

Release Versions

4.1.19 (1/18/17)

  • This version allows the user to set the language to English, French, German, Simplified Chinese, and Japanese.
  • Even more content with updated 3D models. View 5,000+ structures.
  • Higher-resolution illustrations and videos.
  • Improved help menu allows users to get answers to questions even more quickly.


Anatomy & Physiology presents core functions of all body systems, including
Cells and Tissues
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Circulatory
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Reproductive

App Content 

Cells and Tissue Introduction

Cells and Tissue Cells and Tissue Overview
Cell Functions
Cell types
Cell Structure and Function Parts of a Cell
Plasma Membrane
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
Passive and Active Transport
Transport Vesicles
Osmosis
Organelles
Cytoskeleton and Centrosome
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Complex
Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Cellular Respiration Definition
Cellular Respiration
Proteins
Protein Synthesis
Transcription Definition
Transcription
Translation Definition
Codons and the Ribosome
Translation
Parts of a Cell
Cell Structure and Function Dissection

Cell Life Cycle Replication

Cell Cycle
Mitosis
Mitotic Spindle
Meiosis
Meiosis and Gametes
Replication

Tissue types in the Body

Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Compact and Spongy Bone Tissue
Skeletal Connective Tissue
Tendons
Function and Components of Blood
Muscle Tissue
Types of Muscle Tissue
Nervous Tissue
Neuron Structure
Tissue Repair
Tissue Repair and Scarring
Tissue types in the Body

Integumentary System Introduction

Integumentary System Integumentary System Overview
Integumentary Structures
Integumentary Functions

Integumentary System Skin Layers

Epidermis Layers
Skin Cells
Epidermis Cells
Dermis Layers
Sebaceous Glands
Sudoriferous Glands
Dermal Circulation
Vitamin D Synthesis
Integumentary Innervation
Dermatomes
Hair
Hair Structure
Hair Functions
Nails
Mammary Glands Integ
Tissue Repair
Tissue Repair and Scarring
Skin Layers
Integumentary System Dissection

Skeletal System and Joints

Introduction: Skeletal System/Joints Skeletal System Overview
Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
Function of the Skeleton

Types of Bones

Bone types
Flat Bones
Long Bones
Short Bones
Irregular Bones
Sesamoid Bones
Bone types

Bone Tissue

Bone Marrow
Interior of a Long Bone
Parts of a Long Bone
Compact and Spongy Bone Tissue
Osteon
Bone Cells
Flat Bone Formation
Flat Bones in the Skull
Long Bone Formation and Growth
Long Bones in the Limbs
Types of Fractures
Bone Repair
Calcium in the Skeleton
Osteoporosis
Healthy and Osteoporotic Bone
Bone Marrow

Axial Skeleton

Axial Skeleton
Skull
Cranial Bones
Occipital
Temporal
Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Skull Sutures
Fontanelles
Facial Skeleton I
Maxilla
Mandible
Facial Skeleton II
Palatine
Lacrimal
Auditory Ossicles
Foramina of Skull
Bones of the Orbit
Nasal Septum
Hyoid
Vertebral Column
Vertebra
Ligaments of the Spine
Intervertebral Joints
Cervical Spine
C04 Vertebra
Thoracic Spine
T04 Vertebra
Lumbar Spine
L03 Vertebra
Sacral Spine
Thoracic Cage
Sternum
Ribs
Axial Skeleton
Axial Skeleton Dissection

Appendicular Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Scapula
Clavicle
Muscular Stabilization
Upper Limb
Arm and Forearm
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpus (Wrist) I
Carpus (Wrist) II
Carpal Tunnel
Hand
Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Male and Female Pelvis
Lower Limb
Thigh and Leg
Femur
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsus
Foot Arches
Foot
Appendicular Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton Dissection

Joints

Joints in the Skull
Synarthroses (No Movement) Skull Sutures
Synarthroses (No Movement) Gomphoses
Synarthroses (No Movement) Synchrondoses
Syndesmoses (Slight Movement)
Symphyses (Slight Movement)
Synovial Joints (Full Movement)
Structure of Synovial Joints
Gliding (Plane) Joints Movement
Gliding Joints in the Skeleton
Hinge Joints Movement
Hinge Joints in the Skeleton
Pivot Joints Movement
Pivot Joints in the Skeleton
Condyloid Joints Movement
Condyloid Joints in the Skeleton
Saddle Joints Movement
Saddle Joints in the Skeleton
Ball-and-Socket Joints Movement
Ball-and-Socket Joints in the Skeleton
Ligaments and Synovial Joints
Joints and Aging
Joints
Joints Dissection

Muscle Tissue and Muscular System Introduction

Muscular System
Muscular System Overview
Muscle Types
Types of Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle2
Cardiac Muscle
Muscular Anatomy

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Nerve and Blood Supply to Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal Muscle Function
Action Potential
Cross Bridge Formation
Skeletal Muscle Innervation
Skeletal Muscle Structure
Nerve and Blood Supply to Skeletal Muscle

Smooth and Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle Function
Gastrointestinal Tract
Stomach Layers
Trachea and Bronchi
Blood Vessel Walls
Urinary Reproductive
Urinary Reproductive Systems Male
Cardiac Muscle Innervation
Myocardium and Heart Wall
Myocardium Muscular
Smooth Muscle
Smooth and Cardiac Muscle Tissue Dissection

Muscular System

Muscle Interactions
Skeletal Muscle Attachments
Chin Raise
Calf Raise
Elbow Flexion
Scalp and Eyebrow
Upper Mouth
Lower Mouth
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
Mastication
Tongue
Suprahyoid
Infrahyoid
Head Movements
Splenius
Erector Spinae
Spinalis
Longissimus
Iliocostalis
Transversospinales
Semispinalis
Rotatores
Segmental
Scalenes
Spinal Flexors
Abdomen
Pelvic Diaphragm
Superficial Perineal
Deep Perineal
Breathing
Shoulder Girdle Movements, Anterior
Shoulder Girdle Movements, Posterior
Prime Movers
Synergists Fixators
Rotator Cuff
Elbow Flexors
Elbow Extensors
Pronation Supination
Superficial Flexors
Deep Flexors
Superficial Extensors
Deep Extensors
Thenar
Hypothenar
Midpalmar
Iliopsoas
Gluteal
Lateral Rotators
Thigh Anterior Compartment
Quadriceps
Medial Compartment
Adductors
Posterior Compartment (Hamstrings)
Lower Leg Anterior Compartment
Lateral Compartment
Posterior Compartment (Superficial)
Posterior Compartment (Deep)
Dorsum
Plantar Layer 1
Plantar Layer 2
Plantar Layer 3
Plantar Layer 4
Muscle Interactions
Muscular System Dissection

Nervous System and Special Senses Introduction

Nervous System/Special Senses Nervous System Overview
Nervous System Anatomy
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Nervous System Functions
Special Sensory Organs

Nervous Tissue

Nervous Tissue in the Body
Neuron Structure
Types of Neurons
CNS Neuroglia
PNS Neuroglia
Neuron Function
Resting and Action Potentials
Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Norepinephrine (NE) and Epinephrine (E)
Dopamine
Nervous Tissue in the Body

Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Spinal Cord
Vertebra
Spinal Nerve Roots
Gray and White Matter
Sensory Signals
Motor Commands
Spinal Nerves
Spinal Nerve Regions
Dermatomes
Cervical Plexus
Cervical Innervation
Brachial Plexus Nervous
Brachial Innervation I
Brachial Innervation II
Brachial Innervation III
Lumbosacral Plexus I
Lumbosacral Plexus II
Lumbosacral Innervation
Somatic Reflex Arc
Path of Reflex Arc
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Dissection

Brain

Brain in Context
Brain Regions
Brain Cross Section
Ventricles of the Brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Blood Supply to the Brain
Brain Stem
Medulla and Pons
Midbrain
Cerebellum Anatomy
Cerebellum Function
Diencephalon
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Limbic System
Cerebrum
Cerebral Hemispheres
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
Features of the Cerebral Cortex
Basal Ganglia
Functional Regions of the Cerebral Cortex
Functional Regions and Cortex Anatomy
Hemispheric Lateralization
Brain in Context
Brain Dissection

Cranial Nerves

Cranial Nerves
Special Sensory Cranial Nerves
Motor Cranial Nerves
Mixed Cranial Nerves
Olfactory Nerves (I)
Olfaction
Optic Nerves (II)
Vision
Oculomotor Nerves (III)
Trochlear Nerves (IV)
Trigeminal Nerves (V)
Ophthalmic Branch of Trigeminal Nerve
Maxillary Branch of Trigeminal Nerve
Mandibular Branch of Trigeminal Nerve
Abducens Nerves (VI)
Facial Nerves (VII)
Vestibulocochlear Nerves (VIII)
Glossopharyngeal Nerves (IX)
Vagus Nerves (X)
Accessory Nerves (XI)
Hypoglossal Nerves (XII)
Cranial Nerves Dissection

Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems

Autonomic and Somatic Functions
Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Functions
Somatic Sensory Signals
Touch Receptors
Somatic Motor Signals
Skeletal Muscle Function
Somatic Sensory and Motor Pathways
Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum
Autonomic Nervous Functions
Sympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous Functions
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous Functions
Autonomic and Somatic Functions

Special Senses

Special Sensory Organs

Olfaction
Olfactory Pathway
Tongue Nervous
Taste Buds
Papillae
Taste Pathway
Eyes in Context
Eye
Eye Layers
Lacrimal Apparatus
Eye Interior
Retina
Rods and Cones
Vision
Types of Vision
Vision Pathway
Optic Chiasm
Ear
Outer Ear
Middle Ear
Inner Ear
Cochlea Cross Section
Organ of Corti
Hearing
Auditory Pathway
Equilibrium
Equilibrium Pathway
Special Sensory Organs
Eye Dissection
Ear Dissection
Cochlea Dissection
Tongue Dissection
Papillae Dissection

Endocrine System Introduction

Endocrine System Endocrine System Overview
Primary Endocrine Organs
Secondary Endocrine Organs
Hormone Action and Regulation Hormone Action
Hormone Circulation
Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Hormones
Hypothalamus Hormones
Hypophyseal Portal System
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Target Organs of Pituitary Hormones
Human Growth Hormone (hGH)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Oxytocin (OXT)
Hormone Action

Endocrine Organs and Functions

Primary and Secondary Endocrine Organs
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Hormones
Parathyroid Glands
Parathyroid Hormones
Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Adrenal Medulla Hormones
Pineal Gland and Hormones
Pancreas
Pancreatic Islets
Blood Glucose Level
Ovaries Endo
Testes Endo
Kidneys
Heart Endo
Thymus
Stress Response
Primary and Secondary Endocrine Organs
Endocrine Organs and Functions Dissection

Circulatory System Introduction

Circulatory System Circulatory System Overview
Circulatory Anatomy
Arteries and Veins
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange

Blood Function and Components of Blood

Blood Plasma
Plasma Protein Production
Production of RBCs
Erythropoietin and RBC Production
Function of RBCs
Oxygen Transport
Function of WBCs
Function of Platelets
Red Blood Cell Production
Function and Components of Blood

Heart

Heart Overview
Heart, Lungs
Thoracic Cage
Heart, Inferior
Heart Wall
Myocardium
Heart Chambers
Heart Chambers Animation
Heart Chamber Functions
Heart Valves I
Heart Valves
Heart Valves II
Heart Interior
Cardiac Cycle and Blood Flow
Heart, Anterior
Heart, Posterior
Coronary Circulation
Coronary Veins
Left Coronary Arteries
Right Coronary Arteries
Conduction System
Heart Conduction
Heart Conduction I
EKG
Cardiac Cycle
Systole and Diastole
Cardiac Output
Heart Innervation
Heart Overview
Heart Dissection

Blood Vessels and Circulation

Vessel Structure
Vessel Walls
Artery Structure
Vein Structure
Capillaries
Blood Pressure
Measuring Pressure
Systolic and Diastolic Pressure
Circulatory Routes
Pulmonary Circulation Illustration
Bronchi
Pulmonary Circulation
Pulmonary Arteries
Pulmonary Veins
Systemic Circulation
Great Vessels
Head Arteries I
Head Arteries II
Circle of Willis I
Circle of Willis II
Circle of Willis III
Brain Arteries
Upper Limb A. I
Upper Limb A. II
Upper Limb A. III
Thorax Arteries I
Thorax Arteries II
Abdominal Aorta I
Abdominal Aorta II
Abdomen Arteries I
Abdomen Arteries II
Intestinal Arteries I
Intestinal Arteries II
Pelvic Arteries I
Pelvic Arteries II
Leg Arteries I
Leg Arteries II
Foot Arteries I
Foot Arteries II
Head Veins I
Head Veins II
Venous Sinuses I
Venous Sinuses II
Upper Limb V. I
Upper Limb V. II
Hand Veins
Thorax Veins I
Thorax Veins II
Azygos System
Abdomen Veins
Hepatic Portal
Intestinal Veins I
Intestinal Veins II
Pelvic Veins I
Pelvic Veins II
Leg Veins I
Leg Veins II
Foot Veins I
Foot Veins II
Vessel Structure
Blood Vessels and Circulation Dissection

Lymphatic System Introduction

Lymphatic System Overview
Lymphatic System Structures
Lymphatic Functions

Lymphatic System

Lymph Circulation
Lymphatic Vessels and Veins
Thoracic Duct
Right Lymphatic Duct
Lymph Trunks
Lymphocyte Production
Thymus Lymph
Spleen
Lymph Node Function
Lymph Node Distribution
Lymph Node Structure
Lymph Circulation
Lymphatic System Dissection

Immunity

Physical Defenses
Innate Immunity
Innate Immune Response
Phagocytosis
Function of WBCs
Adaptive Immunity
Adaptive Immune Response
B Cells
T Cells
Physical Defenses

Respiratory System Introduction

Respiratory System Overview
Respiratory Anatomy
Pulmonary Ventilation
External Respiration
Internal Respiration

Upper Respiratory System

Upper Respiratory System
Nasal Cavity
Nasal Septum
Bones of the Nasal Cavity
Nasal Cartilages
Upper Respiratory
Nasal Mucosa
Filtration of Air
Respiratory Defenses
Sneezing
Olfaction
Olfaction QV
Pharynx
Function of the Epiglottis
Larynx, Posterior
Larynx, Anterior
Phonation
Vocal Folds and Musculature
Upper Respiratory System
Upper Respiratory System Dissection

Lower Respiratory System

Lower Respiratory System
Location of the Trachea
Cartilaginous Rings
The Trachea and Bronchi
Lungs in Anatomical Context
Right Lung, Gross Anatomy
Left Lung, Gross Anatomy
Lung Hilum
Bronchial Tree
Alveoli
Respiratory Membrane
Blood Supply to the Lungs
Pulmonary Circulation, R
Lower Respiratory System
Lower Respiratory System Dissection

Respiration

Breathing
Pulmonary Ventilation2
Muscles of Inhalation
Muscles of Exhalation
External Respiration Movie
External Respiration2
Daltons Law
Internal Respiration Movie
Internal Respiration2
Breathing Rate and Regulation
Respiratory Regulation
Breathing
Respiration Dissection

Digestive System Introduction

Digestive Overview
Digestive Anatomy
Digestive Process
Alimentary Canal
Digestive Juices
Production of Digestive Juices

Oral Cavity

Structures of the Oral Cavity
Oral Cavity
Chewing and Swallowing
Function of Oral Cavity Structures
Teeth
Upper Arch
Lower Arch
Tooth Cross-Section
Tongue Digestive
Tongue Image
Salivary Glands
Mastication Muscles
Epiglottis, Larynx
Structures of the Oral Cavity
Oral Cavity Dissection

Esophagus and Stomach

Peristalsis
Peristalsis in the Digestive Tract
Esophagus
Stomach Regions
Stomach Wall
Stomach Sphincters
Stomach Vasculature
Peristalsis
Esophagus and Stomach Dissection

Accessory Organs of Digestion

Accessory Organs
Liver Lobes
Liver Ligaments
Hepatic Portal System
Pancreas, Liver, Gallbladder
Bile Ducts
Pancreatic Ducts
Blood Supply to Accessory Organs
Accessory Organs
Accessory Organs Dissection

Small and Large Intestines

Absorption
Absorption Structures
Intestinal Vasculature
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Colon Regions
Taenia Coli
Large Intestine Image
Defecation Reflex
Absorption
Small and Large Intestines Dissection

Urinary System Introduction

Urinary System Overview
Male Urinary Anatomy
Female Urinary Anatomy
Urinary Functions

Kidney

Anatomy and Physiology Position of the Kidneys
Kidney Anatomy qv
Blood Supply to the Kidneys
Blood Flow Through the Nephron
Nephron Structure
Position of the Kidneys
Kidney Dissection

Urine Production

Filtration Process
Filtration
Filtration Membrane
Reabsorption and Secretion
Reabsorption and Secretion Process
Urine Composition
Function of ADH
Filtration Process

Urine Storage and Elimination

Pathway of Urine
Ureters
Bladder in Female
Bladder in Male
Bladder Anatomy
Micturition Reflex
Nervous Control of Micturition
Urethral Sphincters
Female Urethra
Male Urethra
Pathway of Urine
Urine Storage and Elimination Dissection

Reproductive System Introduction

Reproductive System Overview
Male Reproductive Anatomy
Female Reproductive Anatomy

Male Reproductive System

Male Reproductive Organs in Context
Testes and Spermatic Cords
Testicle Internal Anatomy
Spermatogenesis
Epididymis
Vas Deferens
Urethra
Accessory Glands
Semen Production
Penis Internal Anatomy
Blood Supply to Male Genitalia
Male Sexual Response
Male Sex Hormones
Male Reproductive Organs in Context
Male Reproductive System Dissection

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive Organs in Context
Ligaments
Ovaries
Ovary Internal Anatomy
Oogenesis
Relationship of Ovaries to Uterus
Blood Supply to Uterus and Ovaries
Vagina
External Genitalia
Female Reproductive Cycle
Ovulation
Female Sex Hormones
Mammary Glands
Lactation
Lactation Hormones
Female Reproductive Organs in Context
Female Reproductive System Dissection

Sexual Reproduction and Development

Gametes to Zygote
Sexual Reproduction
Fertilization to Implantation
Path of Zygote
Two Weeks After Conception
A Developing Embryo
Hormones During Pregnancy
Hormones and Fetal Development
How Twins Develop
Taking Shape
Fetal Reproductive Development
Fetal Development
Birth
Stages of Birth
Reproductive Lifespan
Gametes to Zygote

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